With over 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous country in the European Union. However, its fertility rate of 1.39 children per mother is one of the lowest in the world, and the federal statistical office estimates the population will shrink to between 69 and 74 million by 2050 (69 million assuming a net migration of +100,000 per year; 74 million assuming a net migration of +200,000 per year).
Germany has a number of larger cities. The most populous cities are: Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, and Stuttgart. By far the largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region, including Düsseldorf, Cologne, Essen, Dortmund, Duisburg, and Bochum.
Ethnic Groups in Germany: Germans 91.5%, Turks 2.4%, others 6.1% (made up largely of Greeks, Italians, Poles, Russians, Serbs and Croatians).
German language taught in schools and used in the media is often not the same as German spoken in the streets. Various dialects have a strong influence in most areas. English is widely understood and many Germans from the former East Germany speak Russian.
Age Structure is the distribution of the population according to age. The age structure of a population influences key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage aged 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. German population is a rapidly ageing, with high percentage of people aged 65 and over.