400 – 0 BC – the Celtic era – The Celts were the first modern human inhabitants of this territory. The Latin name of the biggest czech land – Bohemia was "Boiohaemum" and it is derived from the name of the Boii Celtic tribe. The centres of the Boii were found at Zbraslav and Zavist, near the capital city of Prague.

0 – 500 AD– The Germanics era – the tribes of Marcomanni and Quadi – these tribes had contacts with the Roman Empire.

6th century – The Slavic era ensued due to migration of Slavic tribes from the east. Around this time the first „Czechs" appeared in this area. According to popular Czech legend there were two brothers: Czech and Lech. One day, they decided to find a new place to live, and so they and their tribes set out on a journey west. One day they climbed to the top of a hill in Bohemia called Rip (Říp). They saw a rich land with rivers, meadows and forest and Czech had decided that this was the place for him and for his tribe to stay. Lech and his people continued their journey and settled in present-day Poland." ( Radio History Online)

9th century – first state on the territory of the Czech lands - Great Moravia

Ruins of a Great Moravian castle in Ducové

Ruins of a Great Moravian castle in Ducové - source

9th to 12th centuries – foundation of the second Czech state – at first the Principality Bohemia and since 1198 Kingdom under the rule of the Dynasty of Přemyslovci (Premysl house) – important person was king Wenceslas I (Václav).

1198-1306 – the period of the strong Kings of Premysl house – the Czech state was an important power in Central Europe.

1310-1437 – The rule of Dynasty of Luxemburg – John of Luxemburg´s son, the Emperor Charles IV was an enlightened rule, whose mother was from the house of Premysl. Prague was the capital city of Holy Roman Empire. Czech Kingdom was the central power of Europe. Charles University was founded - the oldest university in Central Europe.

1415 – Czech religious reformer Jan Hus was burned to death at Constance

1419-1434 – Husite wars – religious reformation (early Protestantism) and Czech national revolution

Hussite Wars

Hussite Wars - source

1526 – The Czech lands become part of the Habsburg Empire, Protestantism was permitted

Emperor Rudolph II (1576–1611) Prague is again the center of Empire, period of arts, mysticism and alchemy

1620 - Religious freedom was abandoned, the only permitted faith was the Roman Catholic religion. Non-Catholics had to choose between emigration and abandoning their faith. Many chose to depart the country – incl. Jan Ámos Komenský - Comenius „the teacher of nations" – founder of modern pedagogy

18th and19th century – Habsburg Empire dominates the Czech nation. However, gradually, due to efforts of Czech patriots a modern Czech nation is born

1918-1938 – First Czechoslovak Republic incorporating the Czech lands and Slovakia. Czechoslovakia is the island of democracy and economical prosperity in the Central Europe. Czechoslovakia is a tolerant democratic and multi-ethnic state. The president and builder of the First Republic was Prof. Tomáš G. Masaryk

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk - source

September 1938 - Germany, Britain, France and Italy signed the Munich Pact, giving Hitler the right to invade and claim Czechoslovakia’s border areas

1939-1945 – Nazi Occupation – Czech lands were under Hitler’s tyranny - more than 250 000 Czechoslovak citizens were murdered, including some 180 000 Jews. The Czechoslovak Government in exile was established in London – under leadership of President Edvard Beneš. Czech military contingents were set up in Britain, Soviet Union, and North Africa.

1945-1948 – a brief period of post war democracy

1948-1989 – Czechoslovakia was part of the Soviet communist Empire. There was total control of the state and society by the Communist Party. More than 5000 people were killed, 280 000 kept in prisons. The communist regime was responsible for the destruction of Czech national independence, democracy and economical prosperity.

1967-1968 – Prague Spring - an attempt at reforming the communist system – the Symbol was Alexander Dubček.

August 1968- Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia (21.8.1968), resulted in the abandonment of democratic reforms

November 1989 – the Velvet Revolution – the end of Communist Regime. Leader of the anti-communist opposition was Václav Havel. Havel was elected President of Czechoslovakia.

1.1.1993 - the Czechoslovakia peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

12. 3. 1999 – The Czech Republic was accepted as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

1. 5. 2004 - The Czech Republic becoming a member of the European Union